Freedom of Information Act FAQ

What is the Freedom of Information Act?

FOIA, also known as 5 U.S.C. 522, was passed in 1966 and amended in 1974. It allows the public better access to government records. With these records, the public can find out what the government knows about them and what types of policies agencies use to govern the public.

FOIA is a valuable tool for whistleblowers as they obtain records that they would not be able to obtain otherwise.

What does the law call for?

The law is actually broken up into two parts: The first part calls for all government agencies to publish the following in the Federal Registrar:

While these sections may seem confusing, the second part of the law is what makes it one of the best pieces of legislation passed on behalf of the American Public. The law allows for the public to view the records of agencies. Anyone can find out how an agency is spending its money, the reasoning behind their policies, and the intended effect of the agencies policies.

What are considered records?

The law also allows the public to see other types of records that were not enumerated above and the courts have interpreted this broadly.

How is an Agency Defined?

Agencies are defined as agencies that have executive position of the cabinet, independent regulatory committee (like the Federal Communication Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission), and corporations that are owned by the federal government like the U.S. Postal Service and Amtrak. However the following are exceptions to FOIA:

Other restrictions of the law deal with the types of information that are exempt from the FOIA. These exemptions are:

How do I start my FOIA request?

If you would like to request records under the FOIA, you must submit it in writing to the appropriate agency. All agencies have a freedom of information officer who processes the requests. The letter must be as clear as possible stating what information you are requesting and the purpose of the information. Several common types for requests are:

What are some tips to expedite my request?

Try to limit your request to only the information that you want. If you tell the agency that you just want everything ever related to the subject, you might give the agency an excuse to delay its response, or deny it flat out. Some other tips are:


Does it cost anything to complete a FOIA request?

Many of the agencies charge costs related to the search for the materials desired. The three types of charges are

  1. Charges to search for the requested information
  2. Costs related to deciding what information to include in your request
  3. Reproduction related fees.

The types of costs you pay will depend on why you are requesting the information. Your costs can be reduced, for example, if the information is for public distribution versus commercial use. Each agency has to tell you how much these costs are before your request is processed.

If you feel you should not be obligated to pay the related fees, you can ask for a fee waiver in your request. Agencies may grant fee waivers if the requested information is to be publicly disseminated. How long does it take to process a FOIA request?

By law, the agency has to respond to your request within ten days. However agencies can take up to an additional ten days due to backlog or difficulties in finding the information you are requesting. If all or part of your request is denied then you may file a FOIA appeal. Agencies have 20 days to respond to your appeal. The agency will send you a letter acknowledging your appeal and your case will be assigned a number. If they do not respond in those 20 days, you have a right to take your claim to federal district court. However, if after the first response you still have not received any of your requested documents, the agency must send you a letter stating the reason for the delay.


Where do I send my request?

As stated above, each agency has an office or an officer dedicated to processing FOIA requests. A good place to find which agency you should be requesting is government publications which list offices or many government web sites have pages dedicated to FOIA requests.

Where can I find more information?

Related Links:

E.P.A FOIA Web Page

F.B.I. FOIA Web Page

U.S. Department of Justice FOIA page

U.S. Department of Labor FOIA page



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